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THE RISE OF DICTATORS IN EUROPE


The three main dictators in Europe were Hitler, Mussolini, and Stalin. Mussolini promised the people of Italy that he would give them strong leadership. In the year of 1919 Mussolini founded the Fascists party. The thing that all of these dictators have in common, is that they were all very well known but for the different specific reasons. With the impact of Hitler, the Nazis became the biggest political party. (1)


While in power, Joseph Stalin controlled everything the Soviet Union did in every day life. Stalin controlled the economy and even the citizens private personal lives. In order to maintain his power, Stalin constructed a police state. A police state would basically secretly spy on the citizens and monitor everything the people did in their every day life. Eventually, the police state would arrest and kill millions of people who they thought were traitors. (1)world-war-2.png



THE BEGINNING OF WORLD WAR II

World War II all started because Joseph Stalin signed a ten year nonaggression pact with hitler. The Nonaggression act is an agreement in which nations promise to not attack one another. Immediately when the nonaggression act was signed Hitler decided to do a surprise attack on Poland. Hitler's surprise attack happened on September 1,1939. Hitler's surprise attack was a success and because of his victory, Hitler annexed the western half of Poland. To annex something is adding a region to the territory of an existing political unit. (1)

Sixteen days after Hitler launched a surprise attack on Poland, John Stalin decided to send troops to conquer the eastern half of Poland since Hitler already gained control of the western half. On April 9,1940, Hitler lofted another surprise attack, but this time the attack was in Denmark and Norway. Hitler won again and because of this victory, the Germans started to construct bases on the Norwegian and Danish coastline. (1)

The only reason for the construction of the bases was so that the Germans could attack Great Britain. By June 14, the Germans had already seized control of Paris. The Germans just took control over the northern part of France. Since France was completely taken over, Great Britain was the only one left. The battle started for Britain started on September 7, 1940. Britain stood their ground and because of that the Battle for Britain lasted until May 10, 1941, and Hitler eventually gave up trying to attack Britain. (1)

Major battles in WWII
The Battle Of Midway

Following the battle of Pearl Harbor the Japanese armies rolled over Southeast Asia, the Philippines, and the East Indies. The war in the Pacific was fought on land, at sea, and in the air. The turning point of that war was in June, 1942 at the Battle of Midway. The U.S destroyed hundreds of Japanese planes and regained control of the Pacific. (2) Japan's next target against the allies was at Midway Island which is the key American airfield. (1)

The Allies had code breakers, Admiral Chester Nimitz, chief of the Pacific Fleet, knew that a huge Japanese force was heading toward Midway. Admiral Yamamoto the commander of the Japanese Fleet hoped that the attack on Midway would draw the whole U.S. Pacific Fleet from Pearl harbor to defend the island. American pilots destroyed 332 Japanese planes, all four aircraft carriers and one support ship. By June 7 1942 the battle was over and turned the tide of war in the Pacific. (1)

The Lightning War

When Germany was going to invade Poland they wanted to test their new military strategy-- The Blitzkrieg or Lightning War. It involved using fast moving airplanes and tanks, followed by massive infantry force, to take their enemies by surprise and would quickly overwhelm them. It worked on Poland. When Hitler signed a nonaggression pact, after he signed it he quickly moved ahead for his plans to conquer Poland. (1)

Germany began a merciless bombing of Poland's capital , Warsaw. When France and Great Britain declared war on Germany on September 3, Poland fell sometime before the nations could make and military response. After Hitler's victory he annexed the western half of Poland and that region had a large population of Germans. The invasion of Poland was the first test of the German's strategy which was called blitzkrieg or lightning war. (1)

Pearl Harbor

When the U.S. cracked the codes of Japan and found out that Japanese's plans about Southeast Asia. If Japan were able to conquer the European colonies there, it could also threaten American controlled Philippine islands and Guam. In July 1941, Roosevelt cut off oil supplement to Japan. The Japanese still contained their conquest despite the oil shortage. The Japanese planned to attack the British and the Dutch colonies in southeast and on American outposts in the pacific at the same time. (1)
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On December 7, 1941 the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. The American leaders found out that the Japanese were going to attack them but didn't know where or when they would attack them. After the Japanese destroyed most of the U.S. Ships and military supplies, and had killed some innocent people; President Roosevelt declared, "a date which will live in infamy." Congress quickly accepted his fewest to declare war on Japan. (1)


U.S. Involvement in WWII

On December 7 1942, American sailors at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii were being attacked by the Japanese. The U.S. knew that the Japanese were going to attack but didn't know what or when they would except that it was soon. The next day President Roosevelt declared war on Japan, and that's how they first got into the war. The U.S. was with the allies which was mainly the U.S. and Austria. (1)

The U.S. really wanted to strike back because they wanted to avenge the Pearl Harbor attack that the Japanese did. Slowly the allies started to turn the tide of war. In May 1942 an American fleet with Austrian support intercepted a Japanese strike headed for Port Moresby in New Guinea. The U.S. knew if the Japanese were able to build another air base they would be harder to beat. So at dawn On August 7 1942, thousands of U.S. marines, with Austrian support landed on Guadalcanal and the neighboring island of Tulagi. (1)

Japan's Pacific Campaign

The Japanese's military leaders were like Hitler, they had dreams of empire. When the U.S cut off the oil supplement for Japan even though they did that Japan wasn't going to stop they were still going to keep going with their conquest. The Japanese's plan was to attack the British and the Dutch and the American outpost in the pacific at the same time. But on December 7, 1941 in the morning they attacked Pearl Harbor. (1)

Within the Two hours they had sunk or dammed 19 ships including 8 battleships, moored in Pearl Harbor. And more than 2,300 Americans were killed with over 1,100 wounded. The Japanese took over Guam and Wake and now they wanted to take thePhilippines as well. In January 1942, they marched into the Philippine capital Manila. After about three months of fighting, the Japanese tookthe Bataan Peninsula n April. Corregidor fell the next month. (1)

The Holocaust

The Holocaust was a genocide of millions of people, but it affected the Jews the most. This immense annihilation was held by the Nazis, a group of National Socialist workers that were controlled by Adolf Hitler. Adolf Hitler was born in Austria in 1889 and became the dictator, and chancellor of Germany. Germany came to power in 1933 and they believed the they were were the most powerful of all races and that others were inferior (5).

The start of the Holocaust
This horrific event happened because of the anti-Semitic countries like Germany and many others (5). This started in 1933 when the Germany came to power, the population at that time was over nine million Jews, and by the 1945 it the population decreased to 2/3 (5).

The Nazi effluence spread across Europe rapidly and soon millions of races were being killed and sent to concentration camps (5). Most didn't survive in the concentration camps because of the bitter conditions (5). Inside the concentration caps people didn't have rights because they were prisoners they were treaded poorly with very little food and a lot of labor (5).

Concentration Camps5.-us-fighters-world-war-ii-dogfight-130826-670x440.jpg
During that time there were camps all around Germany and they were lead by the SS ( Schutzstaffel) these were the upper-class guards that maintained everything in order (5). There were more than 20,000 camps through out Germany holding more than a million inmates (5). Most of the deaths were caused because of the harsh environment, exhaustion from labor, starvation, and gassing chambers. One of the most famous concentration camps were Auschwitz located in Poland.

Military vehicle

Tank
The tank is a armored vehicle that has the advantage in offense and in defense because of its immense strength. This vehicle is equipped with a large calibre cannon, and a rotating gun turret. A tank is made with thick and heavy armor, to protect soldiers and itself from enemy attacks, and because it's is covered out of steel, it isn't a very fast vehicle (6).

Helicopter
Helicopters are one of the most important rotorcraft in the army, because it can be used for many things and there are also many types as well. There are warfare helicopters, and rescue helicopters, the warfare is used for attacking enemies and the recuse is for retreating and helping soldiers out of trouble. These rotor rafts have bin a vital part for the military and many other things as well because They are able to as carriers, firing machine, and to travel (6).

Aircraft Carriers
The humongous ships are made for many reasons, likes for a home base, aircraft landings, and for traveling reasons. These ships are one of the biggest ships in the world and they are specifically for the Navy. The U.S currently has 10 of the massive ships and are ready for any occasion because of the tragedy of Pearl Harbor (6).

The Aftermath of WWII

The only reason for the construction of the bases was so that the Germans could attack Great Britain. By June 14, the Germans had already seized control of Paris. The Germans just took control over the northern part of France. Since France was completely taken over, Great Britain was the only one left. The battle started for Britain started on September 7, 1940. Britain stood their ground and because of that the Battle for Britain lasted until May 10, 1941. (1)

After World War II, the powers who were once superior deteriorated, and two new powers started to rise and have their presence felt. The two powers who grew were the Soviet Union and the United States. Peace treaties were being signed by multiple countries. Famines and epidemics brought death to millions of people (3). Famine is the extreme lack of food and epidemic is a widespread of diseases.

At the end of World War II, a total of 50 million deaths.The USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) led in deaths with a total of 42 million. Today, World War II is known as the most destructive war in history. Nuclear weapons and new technology became more advanced. (4) The development of nuclear weapons would be crucial in the following years.

The Allied Victory

In 1944 the allies had a disadvantage against the German and it's supporters. This brought lots of distraction to German cities and the people. When they attacked in Normandy there were many casualties and the allies still kept attacking, clearing most of France and Belgium in the process (7).

On march 7 the allies crossed the Rhine after being victories against the Germans. After the allies were reunited with the Russians the German empire came to an end and it all collapsed. When Hitlers death came, Berlin also fell,and power went to Russia, making the Germans to surrender (7).



Sources

1. " World History Pattern of Interaction" by Gerald A.Danzer, J. Jorge Klor de Alva, Larry S. Krieger, Louis E. Wilson, Nancy Woloch

2. Www. Solopass.org

3. Www. Infoplease.com

4. Www. Historynet.com

5. Www. Intro to the Holocaust.com

6. Www. Army info.org

7. Www. The Allied Victory Infopleas.com